1) 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) - mood and sleep support
2) Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) - anxiety support
3) Glycine - sleep support
4) Taurine - muscle function support
5) Tyrosine - memory and mood support
The below information is from Powder City
5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) Defined5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a naturally occurring amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a principle neurotransmitter involved in enhancing mood. It is also a metabolic intermediate in the biosysnthesis of melatonin from L-Tryptophan.  5-HTP is found in the seeds of the Griffonia simplicifolia herb, a climbing shrub native to Central and West Africa.  5-HTP has pronounced effects because it crosses the blood barrier with ease. 
5 HTP Benefits
MoodWhile 5-HTP and L-Tryptophan are both precursors to serotonin, L-Tryptophan is sometimes converted into niacin â€” whereas 5-HTP is capable of converting only to serotonin â€” which makes it a good supplement choice for enhancing mood. A study found that when combined with Carbidopa, 200mg of 5-HTP improved mood in 43.4% of subjects. 
Body CompositionAppetite suppression is another benefit of 5-HTP supplementation and along with diet and exercise can help in maintaining a healthy body composition.
One study found a 38% reduction in calories compared to the placebo.  Another study found that 2 weeks of 5-HTP supplementation decreased the amount of carbohydrates consumed, with 75% of calories reduced coming from carbohydrate reduction  .
Additional BenefitsWhen combined with GABA, 5-HTP can reduce the amount of time needed to fall asleep. 5-HTP increases serotonin levels, which in turn increases melatonin levels since melatonin is a metabolic product of serotonin. Melatonin is responsible for regulating the sleep cycle, so by this mechanism 5-HTP promotes sleep. 
5 HTP DosageThe recommended dosage is 100mg twice daily.
After taking 100 to 200mgs of 5 htp. I sleep astoundingly better. I used to wake 3 to 5 times a night and have a hard time falling back to sleep. Now I wake up once, or twice a night but I fall back asleep quickly. I remember my dreams now too! I feel much much better now. – Tom G
This site is top notch. The product is great, I definitely feel a mood boost after taking it a few days in a row. I like to take it at night, since it does make you a bit sleepy. I will go a few days off of it and still be pretty good. Great stuff, great site. I will most definitely order from them again. – Viv
Gaba SummaryGABA acts as a sort of natural tranquilizer that helps to reduce anxiety by impacting neurotransmitters in the Central Nervous System. It is produced in the body and used in the brain to regulate sleep patterns and nerve impulses. Because of this, GABA supplements can also be utilized to help those with various sleep disorders or those who simply experience poor sleep quality.
Supplements that contain GABA are similar to others such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, however the sedative effects users report tend to be milder than these other medications. These supplements are commonly used by those who experience anxiety, depression, insomnia, and various forms of addiction to counteract the lower levels of the natural amino acid that are found in their systems.
GABA is also commonly referred to as Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and 4-aminobutanoic acid. Some have had success when attempting to increase GABA naturally by using certain plants such as Kava, however this is only an option where such plants are legal.
GABA deficiency diseases are quite common, and therefore GABA supplements are becoming increasingly popular to counteract these low GABA level symptoms.
Benefits and EffectsSince GABA is a naturally occurring amino acid in the brain, it has many useful applications when used in the form of a supplement too.
Motion SicknessMotion sickness is a common occurrence in those who undergo lengthy car rides, boat trips, or plane flights. Many users report the use of GABA to help alleviate these feelings of motion sickness when taken before these longer rides. These reports even come from those who typically tend to experience greater levels of severity in their motion sickness, which can often include chills and cold sweats.
Anxiety and DepressionDue to its ability to inhibit certain receptors in the brain, GABA can be a naturally calming substance. In times of increased anxiety or depression, the nerves in the brain are firing at heightened rates. This increase in activity is what most often results in these feelings of uncertainty, worry, and anxiety. By utilizing the supplement GABA, users can help reduce this activity by blocking nerve impulses and achieving and more relaxed state in comparison to their state of anxiety.
Immune FunctionGABA can be integral when it comes to supplemental assistance in the immune system. As a neurotransmitter, it has the ability to either promote or halt the activity of Cytokines in certain immune cells. Cytokines are small proteins that can impact how the cells around them behave. This is especially important when it comes to the function of the immune system. They help to keep in check the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses to bacterial threats. When Cytokines are off-balance, the immune system can suffer. With higher levels of GABA in their system, users tend to fight off getting sick with more success thanks in part to a stronger immune system.
High Blood PressureIt has been proven that those who suffer from heightened anxiety and stress are also more prone to suffering from high blood pressure and other similar ailments such as poor circulation and general health in the cardiovascular system. By using supplemental GABA, those who suffer from high blood pressure have shown healthier circulation and lower blood pressure, making it a possible alternative to other more common blood pressure medications that might have other negative side effects.
Bodybuilding BenefitsSome users choose to use seek the GABA supplement for its bodybuilding benefits, which work by promoting the healthy production and release of immunofunctional GH and immunoreactive GH. Both of these natural substances are known to help in the process of building lean muscle.
How Gaba WorksGABA is known to moderate the activity between various transmitters within the brain that are associated with higher levels of anxiety, which can ultimately lead to panic attacks, headaches, and other forms of cognitive impairment when levels of GABA are extremely low. The absence of this substance within the brain can lead to these neurotransmitters having the ability to fire too easily, which then leads to these types of neurofunction.
GABA receptors are those that have been tied to the substance within the central nervous system. After they have bonded, the receptors are less likely to fire, which means that whatever signal they were going to send is blocked thanks to the GABA substance’s presence in the brain. The result of this in users who typically have lower levels of GABA naturally occurring in their system will usually be a calmer, more relaxed feeling.
Many find the results from low doses of GABA taken orally do not tend to have the desired effects, however.
DosageMany users find it necessary to ingest high doses of GABA on a daily basis in order to see the results they want from the substance. While the recommended GABA dosage will vary based on the individual, the average is between 3 and 5 grams taken daily.
The lower impact the supplement has on the system is due in part to the low absorption rate between the blood-brain barrier and GABA. Users can either take their 3 to 5 gram dosage in one go or they can divide it into smaller doses throughout the day to achieve the same results. However, either way, GABA should be taken without food.
With levels of GABA high in the system from these higher doses, users are more likely to see the calming and relaxing benefits of the supplement.
Side EffectsThere are very few reported negative GABA effects associated with using the substance to achieve these results, which can be due in part to the fact that it is a naturally occurring chemical found in the brain.
Since it does function quite similarly to an antidepressant or an anxiety medication, which are designed to give the user more energy and motivation throughout the day, users of GABA can sometimes experience restlessness as well as the occasional elevated heart rate. This can also be accompanied by a tingling sensation throughout the course of the user’s body. However, even these side effects typically are short-lived and not much cause for concern to many.
There are certain drugs that can alter the way GABA works within the brain. These can include certain supplements designed to aid in experiencing quality sleep. This can also include certain tranquilizing medication. When these are being used, GABA supplements should not be taken, as the effects will more than likely be negated by these other drugs anyway.
Since there has been no significant research in regards to the effects GABA can have on pregnant women, the supplement should be avoided until after pregnancy to avoid any negative side effects that could potentially harm either the mother or the child.
Glycine DefinedGlycine is the smallest amino acid, yet has the largest range of functions, ranging from acting as a neurotransmitter to facilitating the production of muscle tissue in healthy individuals, supplementing with glycine exhibits nootropic properties, such as improved memory and attention, while also promoting overall health, such as maintaining the acid-base balance in the gut and acting as a cellular health supplement as well.*
The vast range of bodily functions makes glycine one of the most abundant amino acids in both the human body and dietary proteins alike. Consequently, fish, meat, soy, and even bananas are just a few of the many dietary sources of glycine. While readily available in the diet, research suggests that supplemental glycine provides optimal absorption. 
Glycine Powder as a NootropicNootropic qualities, including supplementation of memory, attention span, and cognition, have been exhibited with supplemental glycine.* [4,3]
Glycine for SleepSleep deprivation inhibits cognitive abilities, whether it results in decreased memory, poor attention span, or just crankiness, compromised sleep is often crippling during the most inconvenient times. Glycine is particularly useful in times where a full night of sleep is difficult in two ways: It promotes sleep quality and energy levels when sleep is restricted.* [1,2]
Glycine Supplements for Athletic PerformanceGlycine’s role as a cellular health supplement, alongside promoting a healthy digestive tract, make glycine a worthy supplement to anyone looking to improve their overall well-being.*
Creatine, the supplement known to promote athletic and physical development, is made thanks to the help of glycine. Glycine and L-Arginine are combined to form guanidinoacetate, which is then converted to creatine. Although glycine can be synthesized in the body, supplementing your body’s production may promote the production of creatine.*
Glycine Dosage1-3g/day. All at once or divided throughout the day. If all at once, 30-60 min before sleep
CAS Number: 56-40-6
Synonyms: Aminoethanoic acid, Aminoacetic acid
- File, Sandra E., Emma Fluck, and Cathy Fernandes. “Beneficial Effects Of Glycine (Bioglycin) On Memory And Attention In Young And Middle-Aged Adults.” Journal Of Clinical Psychopharmacology 19.6 (1999): 5506-512. PsycINFO. Web. 18 Apr. 2016
Additional ResourcesGlycine on Examine.com
Glycine Wikipedia Entry
What is Taurine?Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid found in the body. As a protein building block, Taurine is unique in that it is able to perform a number of functions individually without being connected to other proteins . Taurine is a non-essential amino acid and is found in foods such as meat, fish, and dairy products; however, supplementation provides superior levels of taurine.
Benefits of TaurineTaurine plays a role in achieving and maintaining a healthy body composition . It achieves this by digesting fat and absorbing fat soluble minerals. Taurine also regulates mineral balance, especially calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium.
Taurine is also a popular training aid for weight lifters and other athletes. It performs as a cell volumizer, drawing water into the muscles and leading to greater nutrient absorption. As the muscles become more hydrated, this also helps to prevent protein break down and enhances natural protein synthesis. As electrolyte transport increases, another positive effect is the delayed onset of any possible muscle cramping that would ordinarily occur during endurance training .
Taurine supplements can also benefit the mind and cognition. It increases the efficiency and output of neurotransmitters within the brain, boosting cognitive and mental activity. Taurine also acts as an agonist for GABA and other neurotransmitters found within the brain and nervous system. This directly stimulates relaxation and reduces anxiety. Additionally, taurine can help to reduce swelling and inflammation resulting from traumatic brain injury .
Taurine I also great for your eyes. As there are high amounts of this compound found in the retina, you can also improve and protect your eyesight. Retinal lesions and visual deterioration can be reversed through the use of Taurine. Additionally, evidence shows that it is capable of protecting against the effects of macular degeneration .
Taurine DosageThe recommended taurine dosage is 500 and 2,000mg per day. This can be taken all at once or broken up into smaller administrations throughout the day.
- Taurine 6; S.S. Oja; 2006