D-Aspartic Acid: This is a natural isomer of the more commonly occurring amino acid L-Aspartic Acid. Over the past few years, no single ingredient in natural testosterone support has gained the notoriety, produced the outstanding blood work results, or seen the overwhelmingly positive anecdotal feedback as DAA.* A clinical trial performed on adult men found DAA to elicit a 42% average increase in testosterone after only 12 days of use (3 grams daily).* It has been long suggested that such a positive shift in testosterone production can help bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts in their efforts for gaining new lean muscle mass, enhancing fat loss, and of course, supporting strength and performance!*.
ActeoFit™: This high-affinity SERM (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator) contains two complimentary plant extracts that have been suggested to support a healthy estrogen balance, helping to counter estrogen buildup with high spikes in testosterone.* One series of preliminary experiments with mice also suggest support for endurance during exercise using one of the extracts, along with inhibited creatine kinase (a marker of muscle damage) and promoting muscle glycogen stores.* This may help support athletic performance and preserve muscle mass and energy (glycogen is the primary source of fuel during exercise).* Furthermore, support for muscle cell mitochondria was observed.* This may promote muscle fiber growth, along with an anti-catabolic (protein sparing) effect.*
RC Pensis™: Ruta Chalepensis extract, better known as RC Pensis™, has demonstrated significant testosterone supporting properties in some preliminary animal studies, alongside abilities to promote liver and muscle glycogen stores, and promote nitric oxide production.* One study with male mice suggested a remarkable increase in serum testosterone levels.* Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) was also increased, while supplementation significantly increased testicular weight/volume.* Additional peer-reviewed studies suggest ruta chalepsensis may improve the anabolic/anti-catabolic action of insulin, increase liver and muscle glycogen stores, and increase nitric oxide (NO) production sexual health and an enhanced “pump” effect during exercise.*
The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats. Topo E, Soricelli A, D'Aniello A, Ronsini S, D'Aniello G. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009 Oct 27;7:120.
Stimulatory Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Ruta chalepensis on the Sex Organs and Hormones of Male Rats. Aly Abdullah Al Qarawi, PhD . Journal of Applied Research. Vol.5,No.1,2005.
The role of NO and cGMP in antispasmodic activity of ruta chalepensis leaf extract on rat ileum. A.A. Moazedi, N. Dabir et al. Pak. J. Bio. Sci. 13(2): 83-87, 2010
Result of Infusion with Ruta Chalepensis. Othman Al-Sagair,PhD. Journal of Applied Research. Vol.4,No.4,2004
Acteoside of Callicarpa dichotoma. Lee KY, Jeong EJ, Lee HS, Kim YC. Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Jan;98(1):63-71. Epub 2005 Sep 28
Rehmannia inhibits adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. Jiang L, Zhang NX, Mo W, Wan R, Ma CG, Li X, Gu YL, Yang XY, Tang QQ, Song HY. Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jun 27;371(2):185-90. Epub 2008 Apr 3.
Effects of Rehmannia glutinosa oligosaccharides on proliferation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and insulin resistance. Guo XN, Zhang RX, Jia ZP, Li MX, Wang J. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Mar;31(5):403-7.
Acteoside and martynoside exhibit estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. Papoutsi Z, Kassi E, Mitakou S, Aligiannis N, Tsiapara A, Chrousos GP, Moutsatsou P. Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2006, vol. 98, pp. 63-71.
Naturally occurring phenylethanoid glycosides. Fu G, Pang H, Wong YH. Curr. Med Chem. 2008;15(25):2592-613.