Performing more reps and training at an even higher volume - With dietary / supplemental choline being a necessary precursor to acetylcholine, which in turn facilitates skeletal muscle contraction, it was only reasonable to assume that the 2-3x per day 2-3h marathon workouts some of the guys were performing, would increase the risk to deplete your choline levels so that the acetylcholine production would come to a standstill and your muscles would simply refuse to contract.
Greater protection and faster repair of muscle damage - Due to its established anti-oxidant effects and its status as an essential and functional constituent of the cell wall, it appears logical that adequate levels of choline would be necessary to both protect and repair skeletal muscle.
Increased leanness and vascularity - In view of the fact that it has been known since the early 1950s that choline's role in the oxidation of fatty acid goes well beyond serving as a source for the phospholipids that would carry them out of the liver and to the mitochondria of skeletal muscle and other metabolically active tissue (Artom. 1953). Even the assumption that choline supplementation will propel the oxidation of fatty acids, promote lower body fat levels and lead either directly (fat loss) or indirectly (reduced inflammation = reduced subcutaneous water) to a more vascular look, was far from being a bro-scientific 'dumb-and-barbell story'.
SuppVersity - Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone: Meaty "News": Choline, Carnitine & "Bacteria Poop"...: Personally, I eat meat and will continue to do so, but the above is not meat. That's junk, for which there is evidence that it precip...
SuppVersity - Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone: Forgotten Dieting Aids: Choline, Carnitine, Caffei...: I bet both Flex Wheeler (left) as well as Serge Nubret (right) still knew what choline is. Something you probably cannot say of many of to...
A final note on a possible CCC protocol: I actually did not want to write that down, but I know you will be asking anyways. Please keep in mind though, that I cannot tell you the optimal dose and that I have more than just second thoughts about taking high amounts of choline (see potential side effects next to the respective bullet point below).
- Max. (!) 3g choline: Take the choline (bitartrate or citrate, no funky GPC or similar junk) with meals split across the day, but refrain from taking the human equivalents (HED) from the rodent study, I suppose 3g could already make you smell like a fish. Watch out for potential side effects, such as cramps, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, high blood pressure, or acne-like skin rash. Stop the supplement immediately, if you experience any of those. Also make sure to get adequate amounts of potassium and magnesium.
- 3-5g of carnitine: Stick to the l-tartrate or regular form of carnitine. Take the carnitine in 3 doses best on empty (learn more about in the Amino Acids for Super Humans Series).
- 200mg sevings of caffeine: Use the caffeine whenever you are fasted for at least 90min or before you are working out. Don't take more than 400mg, max. 600mg per day and - needless to say - don't take it before bed.
SuppVersity - Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone: Choline Maximizes Carnitine Retention + Effects. T...: The more choline the better the carnitine retention; and the better the retention the less high carnitine red mead you'll have to eat ...